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Carlos Spitzer, S. J. - Dicionário Analógico da Língua Uploaded by Natalia All Rights Reserved. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Dicionário de palavras interligadas analógico e ideias afins — Brasília: Thesaurus, p. 1. Dicionário, Língua portuguesa 2. Dicionário analógico 3. Baixe no formato PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd. Sinalizar por conteúdo . legado o "Dicionário Analógico da Língua Portuguesa", que só foi publicado em .

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The development of the current crisis, which has not yet come to an end, can endanger the welfare state, by both the volume and the quality of employment, which determine the social contributions that finance public services.

The situation is also aggravated by the regressive exemptions of the financial capital, putting greater weight to the popular strata. The effects of the crisis on the health systems are produced in a dual process at various stages. On the one hand, it increases unemployment and poverty, affecting the health of the population and, consequently, impacting the healthcare system.

On the other hand, the effects of the crisis depend on policy responses from governments to meet or not the population on their health needs. SNS: democratic consensus and attempt of neoliberal deconstruction In the following paragraphs, we describe the construction of the SNS with a narrative by the authors on the health care reform in Spain since the end of the Francoist dictatorship.

Then, we analyze critically the attempt to dismantle the SNS. Finally, we discuss the forces dynamics between the market and citizenship regarding the SNS. To argue about the des construction of the Spanish health system by the fiscal austerity policies, we base ourselves on the critical reading of the Sespas Report. The second column was categorized into three axis: 1 political-institutional; 2 social determinants; 3 health. The gradual increase of population coverage A gradual incorporation of the population to social security and aggregation by the public administration happened in Spain.

The coverage of health services extended to all Spanish citizens, theoretically.

Groundwork for the Development of the Brazilian Portuguese Wordnet | SpringerLink

In reality, there was a service for poor people that depended on the State and municipalities and a health care coverage by social security for employed workers and their families.

The scarce middle class used a small private system, fundamentally with their trusted physicians and some experts, as well as a rudimentary network of private health. Some services to specific problems - such as mental health and tuberculosis - had infrastructure and human resources. The diputaciones have specific responsibilities i. From the s, a rapid and progressive increase happened in the social security coverage, due to the successive enlargement of the number of benefitted workers and the growth of employment in Spain.

Progressive fusion of the provision network of public services The different networks of public service began to fuse, mostly because of the General Health Law no. Jefatura del Estado. Initially, the Instituto Nacional de la Salud [National Institute of Health] Insalud was created, which gathered the social security resources devoted to health.

Later, the process of transfer to the autonomous communities was developed for 20 years In this process, the Insalud resources corresponding to each of the autonomous communities were transferred to the regional administrations. Currently, the SNS is formed by Servicios Regionales de Salud with different denominations, originated from scattered networks of previous public administrations.

The SNS owns an important network of its own resources, with buildings and technology.

Dicionário de Palavras Interligadas.pdf

Professionals, including physicians, are public servants. Political decentralization of the management to the autonomous communities, from to Most of the political responsibilities related to health are in the hands of the autonomous communities that administer health services fully. Under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health in Madrid are health competences with other countries, representation in international bodies, some themes related to general coordination, approval of drugs, and the training of specialists, among other functions.

Other ministries have responsibilities, in general terms, related to the management of public workers and employees and the training of professionals. The European Union regulates environmental standards and public health themes.

The municipalities are responsible for water supply, the collection and treatment of waste, and other public services. However, most of the demand in health care and health surveillance services is under the responsibility of the autonomous communities, which designate to the area a third of their budgets. Total financing by taxes from The SNS is financed by taxes since Initially, the funding came from the shares of businessmen and workers aimed at the social insurance and complemented by a transfer of State for assistance to the insured.

With transfers to the regional managements, spending began to match the budgets approved by the autonomous communities. Creation of a new network of health centers with primary health care criteria Regarding primary health care PHC , the SNS services model is based on a scheme with elements partly inherited of the social security system and partly of the old system of State-dependent professionals, bringing new elements as well, arising at the time of creation of the system and influenced by the prospect of the Declaration of Alma-Ata.

The new PHC model was indeed created in the years of political transition, from onwards, on the basis of a new specialist, the family and community physician at this time, over 25 thousand professionals , trained in the system of medical residences and working with a group under their responsibility, enabling the continuation of assistance to persons and families through teamwork combined with other professionals - especially nurses, responsible for collective attention - and an organizational environment favorable to coordinated work.

Dicionário Analógico Da Língua Portuguesa

The PHC reform began formally in , although earlier pioneering experiences existed. Today, despite the problems of imbalance at the hospital level, the PHC model is strong and prestigious. Reform and modernization of hospitals and other specialized services From the s, the SNS significantly improved the quality of its greater complexity services. The new hospitals and new generations of expert physicians, beautifully trained by the system of medical residences, created high-quality services, with high technology, which implies large consumption of financial resources.

From the s, smaller, regional hospitals, start to improve and intermediate services, situated between high technology and good PHC, began to develop. Thus, some system components, such as blood donations and transplants, began to become global references. Since the political transition, pioneering initiatives can be observed in mental health, innovative efforts in management, modern mobile emergency services etc.

Services that complement a system with major deficits, but basically with good results and high social acceptance.

The attempt to dismantle the SNS The effort to increase coverage, which we previously discussed, starts to decrease with a gradual dismantling of the existing coverage and replacement of the efficient SNS by a model based on competition between insurers. However, the central government and autonomous communities, mainly governed by conservative parties, are not simply creating business opportunities for insurers, but also striving to strengthen the market of health services providers.

With various mechanisms. Since , with the austerity measures now in motion, it is possible to witness an unprecedented attack to the six axes that defined the last 30 years of building of a public health system.

Earlier, in Catalonia, at the State level - in a generic way, to all public services -, significant cuts had already occurred, mainly in the salaries of public servants. In April , the biggest hit occurred, specifically aimed at health systems, with the proposal of the Royal Decree-Law a way to legislate supposedly reserved for very urgent matters no.

According to the decree-law, immigrants who do not a regularized residence in Spain are not entitled to the coverage.

They represent a numerically significant group in a country where This has generated a serious problem to this population, held accountable for the crisis in some speeches. The inattention to immigrants by the standardized assistance is a serious justice problem that has mobilized the population, converting thousands of Spanish physicians into consciousness objectors.

The dismantling of the public system creates business opportunities in a market - reshaped and promising - for the private sector of health insurers. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, In some autonomous communities, such as Madrid, Castela-Mancha and Valencia, an aggressive privatizing program advanced onto new hospitals, proposing administrative concessions or cooperatives, though these are much less profiled.

In the Catalan community, the hiring of private service providers has increased. Across the country, the work of progressive fusion of public networks - which demanded several years of efforts and negotiations - are being dismantled apart a new fractionation of the system. The central government and the autonomous communities have also configured a market space by decreasing the portfolio of some services that until now were free and public, such as non urgent health transport, prosthetics, inputs for diagnostic exams and other similar products.

A broad list of drugs has also left the public coverage. These decisions facilitate the advancement of private providers - favoring the private sector to the detriment of the public sector - and establish quotas for the participation of patients as copayment, increasing health spending by direct disbursement on the part of Spanish citizens.

Other measures that are undermining the quality of public services are the massive cuts in the wages of physicians, nurses, and other workers, accompanied by increased workload and limited days off equivalent to those of vacation. Naturally, the discontent is general, negatively affecting work places, both in primary care and hospitals. It is also important to consider that the remuneration of Spanish physicians is smaller than that of fellow European countries, generating the emigration of these professionals to other countries.

All the superficial changes and quality limitations imposed by budget cuts generated several business opportunities for insurers, providers of health care and general services. With the worsening of public services - with wrongly paid professionals - and the limitation of coverage, the number of potential insurance and private services clients increase. Public services based on competition between insurers are more expensive than those based on the SNS model.

In other words, in addition to not represent savings in the current budget, the measures implemented for the medium term will be much more expensive to taxpayers.

The only ones who benefit are insurance companies or those that are willing to enter this business.

The most serious problem of this passage of the right to citizenship or residence to the right to insurance is the absence of coverage for a great part of the population. The greatest risk in this situation is the fractionation of the system, since the rich and the upper middle classes can access private services of quality, while the poor and the popular sectors will have to settle for increasingly deteriorated public services.

As stated by Richard Titmuss Alcock et al. Bristol: Policy Press at the University of Bristol, Next, we shall discuss the SNS faced with the dynamics between the tension of the market by the concentration of income and social resistance. The crisis in Spain has had direct consequences in this process, particularly regarding unemployment, increased poverty, and social exclusion.

The neoliberal economic adjustments have generated, since , economic stagnation, unemployment, and poverty. As empirical evidence of the relationship between accumulation by dispossession and dismantling of the welfare State in Europe, we have increasing inequality in a context in which the return rate of the capital is greater than the growth of national income Piketty, PIKETTY, T.

The fiscal State and the welfare State played a very important role in this short period of time, redistributing income to allow universal access to health, education, and retirement Piketty, PIKETTY, T. Democratic and popular resistance With the publication of Decree-Law no.