The predecessors were Theories of Organizational Behavior (), and some prior work in such fields as organizational behavior, management, and the like. Pearson International Edition Management of Organizational Behavior 2 Motivation and Behavior 15 Theories of Behavior 15 Goal-Oriented Behavior Organizational behavior is an extensive topic and includes management, theories and practices of motivation, and the fundamen- tals of organizational structure.
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and the relationship of management to informal organization. organizational culture, organizational climate, theory of symbolism because it is there. http:// rutalchondbulsio.cf Management Practices Organisational Creativity and Innovation -. Management of . the right blend of the theory and practice. In a way, the attributes of science. Subject: Management Concepts and Organizational Behaviour. Subject Code: . governments, etc., have also led to changes in its theory and practice. Yet, a.
They cannot assist employers of different parts of the system. Modernization theory[ edit ] Modernization "began when a nation's rural population started moving from the countryside to cities" Shah 3. Urbanization is an inevitable characteristic of society because the formation of industries and factories induces profit maximization. The coverage promoted "psychic mobility" among the social class and increased the aspirations of many hopefuls in developing economic countries Shah 4.
Although this theory of modernization seemed to pride itself on only the benefits, countries in the Middle East saw this movement in a different light. Middle Eastern countries believed that the media coverage of modernization implied that the more "traditional" societies have not "risen to a higher level of technological development" Shah 6.
First, economic development was enhanced from the spread of new technological techniques. And second, modernization supported a more educated society as mentioned above , and thus a more qualified labor-force "Modernization Theory".
This period was labeled[ by whom? Thus, organizational interactions become more distant "Modernization Theory".
The key to achieving this goal is through scientific discoveries and innovations Dobbin Thus, the modernity of organizations is to generate maximum profit, through the use of mass media, technological innovations, and social innovations in order to effectively allocate resources for the betterment of the global economy. Classical perspective[ edit ] The classical perspective emerges from the Industrial Revolution in the private sector and the need for improved Public Administration in the public sector.
Both efforts center on theories of efficiency. Classical works have seasoned and have been elaborated upon in depth. There are certainly both positive and negative consequences to bureaucracy, and strong arguments for both the efficiency and inefficiency of bureaucracies.
While Max Weber's work was published in the late s and early s, before his death in , his work is still referenced today in the field of sociology. Weber's theory of bureaucracy claims that it is extremely efficient, and even goes as far as to claim that bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organization. In addition, within an organization that operates under bureaucratic standards, the members will be better off due to the heavy regulation and detailed structure.
Not only does bureaucracy make it much more difficult for arbitrary and unfair personal favors to be carried out, it also means that promotions and hiring will generally be done completely by merit. He recognized that there are constraints within the bureaucratic system. First of all, he realized that bureaucracies were ruled by very few people with very large amounts of unregulated power.
If Suzy has a legal question about accounting, Erica is likely to help her out and Joe will probably back up whatever decisions the two of them make together. As a business leader, it's important to take note of friendships and other alliances that form within your organization. These informal alliances can help you to better achieve your goals.
They can also stand in the way of them when they're not healthy. Resource Dependence Theory Most product-based industries are well acquainted with the resource dependence theory. This theory states that performance is often influenced by the availability of outside resources. For instance, the toy manufacturer relies on toy wheels from China to manufacture its toy cars. This can even be an issue in service professions like when quality internet signals determine whether or not a life coach can meet with clients on Zoom.
Some organizational behavior professionals also consider customers to be a resource. Without customers, your business can't thrive, so to ensure you're thriving, it's vital to maintain several streams for acquiring and retaining customers.
When there are multiple sources available for attaining the resources needed for a business to thrive, this creates the security necessary for the people within the system to thrive.
Team Management Flexibility No matter what organizational behavior theories you subscribe to, it's important to lead your team intentionally with focus and heart. If you find that one theory isn't helpful in your setting or isn't producing results, look into incorporating multiple theories into your leadership approach. For instance, some of the best managers recognize that there are internal systems informal organization theory , outside influences resource dependence theory , differing sources of power French and Raven's five bases of power , ways to make a social difference hybrid organization theory and that things are always in flux complexity theory.
Understanding Systems with Mintzberg's Organigraph When attempting to use more than one theory of organizational behavior and understand how the complex systems in your business work, one of the most helpful tools could be Mintzberg's organigraph. Unlike organizational diagrams that only picture the hierarchical structure of the company, an organigraph also shows relationships, dynamics and patterns of communication between departments, teams, individuals and even outside suppliers.
In other words, instead of drawing the company's structure, when you create an organigraph you show how it actually works. For instance, in the engineering department of a telecommunications company, an organigraph would use hubs and webs to show how planning engineers interact with field engineers, upper management, customers and even that they go out to lunch with suppliers.
If someone from the sales department wants information on suppliers, this organigraph would show them that the best person to call would be a planning engineer. A traditional organizational chart wouldn't show any of this. Five Functions of Management The study of organizational behavior recognizes the important role of management in leading their teams to success.
You can incorporate organization behavior theories as you go about the five functions most essential to managing your team: Planning: In this stage of organizational behavior management, you're surveying the situation and dynamic while coordinating with others to determine which theories or tools would best help you lead your team to success.
Organizing: During the organizational stage of managing your team, your job is to ensure the necessary tools, resources, systems and financial support are in place to affect the necessary changes.
Commanding: Commanding isn't about shouting out orders but rather clearly conveying the plan and how things are going to work moving forward. Principle 4: Unity of Command This rule requires that an "employee should receive orders from one superior only".
Dual command must not necessarily derive from an intentional organizational design, but can occur coincidently, for instance if departments are not clearly demarcated, responsibilities and authorities are not clearly defined, or relationship dynamics e.
Similar to Fayol's argument that specialization, and hence division of work is a natural state, one could make the point that a single leader is an evolutionary requirement. Simple speaking: social groups of animals often are organized in a way that resembles the hierarchy of companies, so called dominance hierarchies. This is especially true in primates. Hence unity of command is a principle we find applied in the military just as much as in rather modern and alternatively run companies like Google Inc.
Google claims to have flat hierarchies and maintain a small-business feel. However, there still must be a leader, a decision maker, one who carries the largest responsibility, or, as in the case of Google, a team of leaders. Principle 5: Unity of Direction Fayol summarizes this principle with the words: "one head and one plan for a group".
Hence, this point is naturally closely connected to the unity of command principle. Principle 6: Subordination of individual interest to general interest Fayol points out, that personal interests and company interests must be reconciled.
P a g e 10 Generally speaking however, the companies' interests must be put ahead of personal interests. The struggle of interest can be exemplified by the worker rights movements and unions.
Fayol was not at all opposed to such organizations as unions. In fact, he believed in granting benefits to workers. We see, Fayol did not mean to suppress workers interests but rather that every worker must compromise with the interests of the collective, i.
Interestingly, Fayol suggests "constant supervision" as one measure to restrict unwanted egoistic effects, like selfishness, laziness and others, which cloud the vision for the company's interests. This indicates, that with the demand for subordination of individual interest to general interest Fayol included another principle in his catalogue that has not lost its validity today.
Principle 7: Remuneration of Personnel In discussing how to apply fair modes of payment, Fayol mentions several still used strategies, e. Most interestingly he also mentions the aforementioned bonuses and profit sharing. He emphasizes that there should be no overpayment "beyond reasonable limits". One can only speculate how Fayol would think about the bonus practice of banks today. As Fayol explains himself, in his time bonuses and profit-sharing were still rather new concepts.
And he wonders what would happen with bonuses in lean times, pointing out, that a salary entirely depending on profit-sharing would lead to a loss of salary under certain circumstances. Additionally, he describes salary policies as important in maintenance of "relative social quiet", as he calls it. This attitude echoes like a warning for today's management leaders, whose remuneration practice is perceived as socially unsustainable and hence immoral, and Fayol's suggestion is thereby proven to be a relevant principle also today.
Principle 8: Centralization P a g e 11 Centralization is understood by Fayol as the necessity to have control over processes in a central place, and compares this concept with the brain where centrally control is exhibited over the body. Fayol is flexible on the concept of centralization though.
He suggests that the degree of centralization must fit the design and size of the corporation. Possibly larger firms, with longer chains of command do better with more centralization and vice versa. In today's corporate world IT has contributed to an easier approach to centralization. At the same time has the fact that large corporations act globally led to adjustments that can best be performed locally.
In other words, a company must be able to do both. For different business aspects, different solutions must be found. Principle 9: Scalar Chain In many organizations, the scalar chain principle is still very much alive.
However, some have argued that modern management demands new approaches.
It has been argued that with ever increasing size of globally acting companies the scalar chain is increasing in length, thus increasing the cost of coordination. With the changing environment, globally operating companies find themselves exposed to in the twenty-first century, some adopt structures that emphasize flexibility and quick response to change as discussed with Google above. Many organizations attempt to place decision-making authority in the organizational structure with those who can most effectively and efficiently respond to environmental demands.
Not coincidently the term "chain of command" carries a resemblance to military terminology, where the clear distinction of levels of command, and the respect for the flow of orders and information along those chains is of crucial importance. Principle Order In discussing, what he calls material order, Fayol points to lost time and an increase of mistakes as a main disadvantage of disorder.
He also points to social order and the risks attached to a lack thereof, namely, a reduction of productivity. P a g e 12 The control of order is a paramount interest in Fayol's opinion, but he warns that "real order" does not simply mean that things have the appearance of order. The international organization for standardization ISO is one modern example of how today's management attempts to achieve order. The ISO has developed guidelines that intent to help management to achieve order and the correlated high level of quality of leadership, production and documentation.
The ISO certifications, which are designed to test a companies' compliance with the ISO principles, are a fixed part of literally every business undertaking there is. The principle of order that Fayol mentioned is thereby taken very seriously in today's business world.
Principle Equity "Equity and equality of treatment are aspirations to be taken into account in dealing with employees", Fayol says. Clearly, this standard is not easily achieved, however, today's work environment is arguably more equipped to tackle this issue than previous generations of corporations.
One indication for this claim is to be found in the fact that most companies have appointed officials who deal with complaints of employees against the management, for instance the so-called ombudsman. While the problem still persists, Fayol's principle is being recognized by corporations and enhanced by the public opinion and most importantly the lawmakers. Several nations, e.
Germany, Sweden and others, intend to tackle the problem of unequal treatment by passing laws that intend to establish a juridical basis for people who fell victim of inequality. Principle Stability of Tenure of Personnel It is Fayol's opinion that it is better to have a "mediocre manager who stays" than "outstanding mangers who merely come and go".
Fayol does not only apply this idea to management though, he also points to negative effects of a lack of stability when it comes to employees. While this point might be debatable to some extend it is clear that stability contributes to better planning possibilities. It also allows for a psychologically P a g e 13 beneficial state of mind of the employees, hence certainly improving efficiency and the willingness to perform well for the corporation's good.
Principle Initiative Fayol summarizes the need for employees to show initiative in the saying, that "the initiative of all, added to that of the managerrepresents a great source of strength for businesses". He suggests to management to "inspire and maintain everyone's initiative".
Some modernly run companies have come to find their special ways in order to ensure employee satisfaction, and, concomitantly their initiative.
This policy implies that employees get a large part of their time to invest in projects of their choosing.
While these projects are not necessarily connected to their immediate work tasks experience has shown, that they often built the basis for spin-off ideas that benefit the firm.